### Communication Networks and Transmission Lines (EC-5004) ## Syllabus

UNIT 1: Characteristic Parameters of symmetrical and asymmetrical two port networks and their design Image impedance, iterative impedance, characteristic impedance, propagation coefficient, image transfer coefficient , iterative transfer coefficient, Lattice and Bridged T networks, reactive matching networks, matching techniques, insertion loss, symmetrical and asymmetrical attenuators and their design.

UNIT 2: Passive LC Filters Analysis and design of Low pass, high pass, band pass and band elimination filters, m-derived filters, composite filters, Filter specifications, Butterworth approximation, Chebyshev approximation, elliptic function approximation, frequency transformation.

UNIT 3: Positive real function LC, RL, RC, and RLC network synthesis, Foster and Cauer network, minimum positive real function, Brune’s method, Bott-Duffin method, Synthesis-Coefficient.

UNIT 4: Transmission line fundamentals Lumped parameter equivalent, voltage and current on a transmission line, infinite line, characteristic impedance and propagation constant, waveform distortion, attenuation and phase equalizers, distortion-less line, loading, liner reflection on a line, reflection coefficient, input and transfer impedances, open circuit and short circuit line, reflection factors, reflection loss, insertion loss, T and π equivalents of a line, location of line fault, construction and design of two wire line and coaxial cable.

UNIT 5: Line at radio frequencies Parameters of line and coaxial cable at radio frequencies, dissipation-less line, voltage and current on a dissipation-less line, standing waves, standing wave ratio, input impedance of open circuit and short circuit, power and impedance measurement on lines, eighth-wave, quarter-wave and half wave line, circle diagram, Smith chart, solution of problems using Smith chart, single and double stub matching .introduction to micro-strip lines and its analysis.

• Unit 1
• Unit 2
• Unit 3
• Unit 4
• Unit 5

## References

1. Ryder: Networks and Transmission Lines, PHI Learning.
2. Valkenberg: Introduction to Modern Network synthesis, Wiley India.
3. Suresh: Electric Circuits and Networks, Pearson Education.
4. Raju: Electromagnetic field theory and Transmission Lines, Pearson Education.
5. Ganesan: Transmission Lines and Waveguides, TMH.
6. Rao: Electromagnetic Waves and Transmission Lines, PHI learning.

## List of Experiments

1. To set up the standing waves formation on a transmission line and observe their maxima and minima using frequency domain method.
2. To measure the characteristic impedance of transmission lines using frequency domain method and to differentiate between the matched and unmatched lines.
3. To measure the VSWR, reflection coefficient and return loss in a transmission line.
4. To measure the dielectric constant of insulator in the transmission line.
5. To measure the velocity of propagation and wavelength in the given transmission line.
6. To study the attenuation characteristics of signal along a transmission line and observe its variation with frequency. Also calculate the phase constant and propagation constant.
7. To study the effect of reactive loads on transmission lines.
8. To study the difference between lossy and loss less line.
9. To study the physical dimensions of transmission line and estimation of characteristic impedance.
10. To study behavior of infinite and short lines.
11. To study the operation of Balun transformer.
12. To study the loading of transmission lines and estimate the cut off frequency of a loaded line.
13. To study the use of coaxial lines as tuned circuits and delay lines.
14. To study the input and output impedance of any RF circuits and match it to 50/75 ohms.
15. Simulation of various filters